Thousands of people are victims of forced labor and inhumane work conditions in Brazil’s booming meat and poultry industries, with some forced to work 20-hour days, researchers said on Thursday.

Slave labor in Brazil’s poultry sector is “endemic”, said the report by the Washington-based Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) that called for improved working conditions, enforced labor rights and implementation of work contracts.

Brazil is the world’s largest exporter of poultry.

Under Brazilian law, forced labor is defined as a form of modern-day slavery that includes debt bondage, degrading work conditions and long hours that pose a risk to workers’ health or life and violate their dignity.

In its poultry industry, teams of about 10 laborers known as chicken catchers collect the birds that are crammed onto large farms, working up to 20 hours and catching more than 50,000 chickens a day, the report said.

The back-breaking work of chicken catching is considered dirty and dangerous, as poultry can peck, claw and defecate as it is trapped.

“Workers tasked with catching these chickens and transporting them from farms to slaughterhouses suffer egregious working conditions,” said the report by IATP, Berlin-based Heinrich Boll Foundation and Brazilian rights group FASE.

Dozens of companies, including Brazil’s JBS SA, a global meatpacking company, signed onto a 2007 National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labor, part of an effort to rid supply chains of slavery.

In response to the report, JBS, the world’s biggest meat producer, said the company and its suppliers “repudiate” any use of slave labor.

“.. all contracts signed by JBS have a specific clause that explicitly prohibits practices that may establish the use of labor analogous to slave and child labor,” the company said in an emailed statement to the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Brazil’s BRF (BRFS3.SA), one of the world’s largest poultry exporters, and the labor ministry did not respond for requests for comment.

More than 160,000 people are believed to be trapped in modern slavery in Brazil that includes forced labor, according to the Walk Free Foundation, a rights group.

In the past decade, numerous reports by local campaigners have put the spotlight on slave labor in Brazil’s meat and cattle industry, revealing a complex web of suppliers across the globe.

Many cases involve forced labor on cattle ranches across Brazil’s remote and jungle areas.

Last year, raids carried out by government labor inspectors identified 885 laborers in slave-like conditions, with more than half found in agriculture and cattle ranching, down from 1,509 in 2014. – Thomson Reuters Foundation